The essay is one of the “monsters” that appear in the nightmares of the website. But do not need be like that. Knowing what the student expects of the test helps to reduce anxiety and can write a text that scores very well. The evaluation criteria are always divulged in edicts or manuals of the organizers of each event.
In the case of Enem, the students’ performance in the essay is evaluated within the form of argumentative-essay text. The maximum grade is 1,000 for those who take the maximum concept (200 points) in each of the five competencies.
The following explains in detail the main things you need to pay attention to “master” this monster called Enem writing.
Competency 1: grammar
The Enem Reference Matrix defines: “Demonstrate mastery of the formal written form of the Portuguese language”.
When one speaks of “formal writing modality”, one can interpret the rules that appear in the grammar books and that are respected, for example, in books and newspapers. Here are some of them:
- Correct spelling (spelling)
- Using the hyphen
- Uppercase and lowercase letters
- Verbal and nominal agreement
- Name and verb bending
- Verbal and nominal regency
- Pronominal placement
You should leave out the writing:
- Informal recording – slang, regionalisms, profanity
- Markings orality – “talk” with the reader, use expressions such as “well,” “because it is”, etc.
Competence 2: Proposal
The Enem Reference Matrix defines: “Understand the proposal of writing and apply concepts from the various areas of knowledge to develop the theme, within the structural limits of the essay-argumentative text in prose.”
The main mistake the student can commit here is to divert the subject. The theme is a cut of a larger subject, so it is not worth talking generically about “violence” when the theme is “persistence of violence against women”.
This competency tests the ability to read and understand what is requested, as well as write within the proposed topic. One suggestion not to get out of focus is to write down the central idea of your text: write the sentence in a corner of the draft and re-read from time to time to ensure that you are still following the same idea.
Another important aspect is the originality of ideas. Avoid being alone in what motivational texts bring, use your socio-cultural repertoire to stand out: your readings, local or national news facts, data that you know by heart (with source), etc.
And do not forget to clarify the theme! In the words of Enem’s own primer: “Mentioning it only in the title, for example, or leaving it subtended, supposing the banker will know what you are talking about, is not enough. Therefore, much attention should be paid to approaching the theme, which should be clear and explicit. “
Competence 3: argumentation
The Enem Reference Matrix defines: “Select, relate, organize and interpret information, facts, opinions and arguments in defense of a point of view.”
This is where the evaluation of the famous “coherence” – sister of “cohesion” comes in. In simple words, coherence means “to make sense”. It is necessary that one idea be related to the other, and that the reader can follow the reasoning of the author as he advances in the text.
The Enem primer lists some other features of coherence:
- Choice of right words (literal meaning)
- Selection of arguments
- Logical order of presentation of the arguments
- Suitability between text content and the real world
In order not to get lost, think before putting the pen on paper: write down your ideas and make arrows indicating how each argument relates to others and to your thesis. Think of examples, data, stories that form the basis for the ideas you want to use. Do not forget to already think about which solution (s) you will indicate to the problem!
Competence 4: language resources
The Enem Reference Matrix defines: “To demonstrate knowledge of the linguistic mechanisms necessary for the construction of the argumentation”.
Here appears the other sister, the cohesion. In the textual chain, everything that is said is important and related. The nexuses or connectives (prepositions, conjunctions, adverbs and adverbial phrases) work to link phrases in terms of meaning, and also connect paragraphs.
The “language resources” to which the booklet refers are, to a large extent, those words that make all the difference. For those who are still unsure, it is worth reviewing the content, because cohesion is essential for anyone who wants a good grade.
Here it is also worth staying connected in repetition of words (think in synonyms), ambiguities and periods so long that the reader ends up being lost.
Finally, it is worth remembering: the paragraph is your friend! Each idea in your paragraph, and one idea related to the other. Gold regrinha for your essay does not get a set of disconnected things.
Competence 5: intervention
The Enem Reference Matrix defines: “Elaborate proposal of intervention for the problem addressed, respecting human rights”.
Perhaps one of the main mistakes here is just to give a loose idea. None of this: you need to suggest who will execute your idea and what effects are expected from this action.
Avoid clichés like “investing more” or “spreading on social networks.” If this is your idea, make it clear how it will resolve the issue, who the target audience is, and so on.